By Mohammad Kashif

Mushrooms are considered as a delicacy in our society and not everybody uses it as a rotein food. However, a good market has developed by the introduction of fast foods or exotic restaurants. While, at international level the product is in big demand, whether it is fresh, dehydrated or processed. At present, mushrooms are generally cultivated in underdeveloped agricultural areas using simple low-cost methods mostly under natural conditions with low labour costs, frequently as a “part time activity”. Standard western methods are adopted for small-scale production in some parts of Pakistan. These units are small and are not considered viable to meet the requirements of local and international markets.

Dietry benefits of Mushrooms:

  • High Fiber
  • Low fats
  • Rich in Vitamen B&C
  • Rich in Lysine
  • High quality protine
  • Low sodium
  • High potassium
  • No cholesterol
  • No starch
  • Controll blood suger
  • Great source of minerals
  • Low carbohydrate
  • High fiber
  • Effective against  viruses: HIV,Hepatitis B etc
  • Formidable cancer fighter
  • Used as drug against various Diseases

There are the reasons that Mushrooms are grown and cosumed world wide enormously.

Requirements for Mushrooms Cultivation:

  • Growth Room
  • Temperature Control
  • Humidity Control
  • Air Circulation
  • Spawn:
  • Cotton waste
  • Wheat Straw
  • Chicken Manure
  • Gypsum & Urea
  • Flooring
  • Mushrooms Trays/ Polypropylene bags
  • Racks
  • Substrate Pasteurizer
  • Thermometer
  • Max-min Thermometer
  • Relative humidity indicator

Mushrooms Types:

1. Button Mushrooms:

Button is the most extensively cultivated mushroom in the world, accounting for 38% of the world production of cultivated mushrooms. Scientific name is “Agaricus bisporus” also known as “white cultivated mushrooms”. This mushrooms grown on wheat straw, paddy straw added with animal manures. These mushrooms are cultivated under control environment; temperature requirement for this verity is between 15 to 30 ºC.

2. Oyster Mushrooms:

Scientific name of oyster Mushrooms is “Pleurotus species”. Numbers of different species are grown including, Oyster White, Grey, yellow, pink and Black. This mushroom is cultivated on a wide range of plant wastes like wheat straw, cotton waste, paddy straw and other agriculture waste, usually grown in plastic bags. Oyster Mushrooms are the second most important mushrooms in production in the world, 25% of total world production of cultivated mushrooms.

3. Shiitake  Mushrooms:

Scientific name of Shiitake Mushrooms is “Lentinus edodes”. These mushrooms are cultivated under control environment; temperature requirement for this verity is between 18 to 24 ºC. A more intensive cultivation technique has recently been developed involving growth on synthetic logs mainly sawdust and other agricultural wastes.  Shiitake Mushrooms accounts for 10% of world production of cultivated mushrooms.

Mushroom Growing Facilities:

1. Iron Tunnel Structure:

Bamboo Tunnel Structure:

Mushrooms Hut House:

Button Mushrooms Farming:

Growth room Design:

Fixed expanses:

Cost of Production:

Production outcomes:

Oyster Mushroom Feasibility at small scale:

Cost of production for 500 Bags:

Note: The production capacity per bag is calculated on the basis of minimum yield, which could be further improved. It will increase the margin of profit. Further, the calculated cost of production can be reduced to the minimum level by adopting different strategies.

About author: Mohammad Kashif has a Master degree in Horticulture from University of Agriculture Faisalabad Pakistan. He currently works for a private company as Technical manager-Mushrooms. Beside this job, he is technically skilled in Tunnel farming and Orchard management of Citrus, Peach, Plum, apricot and grapes.

Copyright Hortist, 2013

More from Muhammad Kashif

  • ABC of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan
  • Requirements for Mushroom Culture
Hortist is a sustainable source for landscape horticulture news, solutions and resources, managed by a Landscape horticulturist from Pakistan. Hortist reports on importance of this very unique niche and how it improves the landscape of this world and lives of its inhabitants.