A reservoir of water three times the volume of all the oceans has been discovered deep beneath the Earth's surface. The finding could help explain where Earth's seas came from.

The water is hidden inside a blue rock called ringwoodite that lies 700 kilometres underground in the mantle, the layer of hot rock between Earth's surface and its core.

The huge size of the reservoir throws new light on the origin of Earth's water. Some geologists think water arrived in comets as they struck the planet, but the new discovery supports an alternative idea that the oceans gradually oozed out of the interior of the early Earth.

"It's good evidence the Earth's water came from within," says Steven Jacobsen of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. The hidden water could also act as a buffer for the oceans on the surface, explaining why they have stayed the same size for millions of years.

Pinging the planet

Jacobsen's team used 2000 seismometers to study the seismic waves generated by more than 500 earthquakes. These waves move throughout Earth's interior, including the core, and can be detected at the surface. "They make the Earth ring like a bell for days afterwards," says Jacobsen.

By measuring the speed of the waves at different depths, the team could figure out which types of rocks the waves were passing through. The water layer revealed itself because the waves slowed down, as it takes them longer to get through soggy rock than dry rock.

Jacobsen worked out in advance what would happen to the waves if water-containing ringwoodite was present. He grew ringwoodite in his lab, and exposed samples of it to massive pressures and temperatures matching those at 700 kilometres down.

Sure enough, they found signs of wet ringwoodite in the transition zone 700 kilometres down, which divides the upper and lower regions of the mantle. At that depth, the pressures and temperatures are just right to squeeze the water out of the ringwoodite. "It's rock with water along the boundaries between the grains, almost as if they're sweating," says Jacobsen.

Damp down there

Jacobsen's finding supports a recent study by Graham Pearson of the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. Pearson studied a diamond from the transition zone that had been carried to the surface in a volcano, and found that it contained water-bearing ringwoodite, the first strong evidence that there was lots of water in the transition zone (Nature, doi.org/s6h).

"Since our initial report of hydrous ringwoodite, we've found another ringwoodite crystal, also containing water, so the evidence is now very strong," says Pearson.

So far, Jacobsen only has evidence that the watery rock sits beneath the US. He now wants to find out if it wraps around the entire planet.

"We should be grateful for this deep reservoir," says Jacobsen. "If it wasn't there, it would be on the surface of the Earth, and mountain tops would be the only land poking out."

Journal reference: Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.1253358

Published on: newscientist.com

Dated: 06/12/2014

 

, posted in Earth

(Greenprophet)--Cyprus has one of the worst fresh water shortage than other regional countries,  including Lebanon, Israel and Syria.  The problem is so bad that reservoirs have gone dry and trees are dying.

, posted in Earth
Sunday, 01 September 2013 07:40

Garden Talk: September showers

By Zahra Nasir

As always, when monsoon rains have graced us with their presence, gardens should be looking fresh and exceptionally green, with most varieties of plants, especially trees, shrubs and perennial climbers, having renewed themselves with some amazing spurts of new growth which, as mentioned last month, may need pruning back. More importantly though, if your locality received a decent amount of rain, it will, aside from transforming your garden into a temporary rain forest, have shown you exactly where the drainage you took for granted, has gone wrong!

, posted in Gardening

By Jamal Shahid

ISLAMABAD: Meteorologists and environmentalists had long seen heavy monsoon spells coming to Pakistan.

The current downpour only confirmed what they had been reading in the displacement of the monsoon pattern since 1991.

, posted in Earth

(The Express tribune)--BAHAWALPUR / ISLAMABAD / MULTAN: South Punjab region was put on high alert after water level in both River Ravi and Chenab further rose, as the death toll, due to floods and torrential rains across the country, topped 98, according Provincial Disaster Management Authorities (PDMAs).

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Sunday, 04 August 2013 06:43

Water-skiing squirrel sends crowd nuts

(Dailymail)--You might not be able to teach an old dog new tricks, but you can certainly teach a squirrel how to water-ski, as these remarkable pictures show.

, posted in News
Wednesday, 24 July 2013 15:22

Bottled water: The illusion of pure

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has found 27 brands of bottled water being sold in Pakistan to be unsafe for drinking due to contamination, said a press release issued by the council.

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PARIS: Rice tainted with high levels of arsenic has been linked to genetic damage that heightens the risk of cancer, a study published on Monday said.

Naturally-occurring arsenic in drinking water is a long-known health hazard, especially in Bangladesh, where tens of millions of people depend on wells drilled in the 1970s.

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FAISALABAD: The Director of the Water Management Research Centre (WMRC) at the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF), Prof Dr Allah Bakhsh, has expressed deep concern over what he says is the excessive pumping of water by farmers on the Indian side of Punjab. Dr Bakhsh says that excessive pumping is lowering the water table in India, causing water from the Pakistani side to flow to Indian Punjab.

, posted in News

LAHORE: The federal government is going to set up a combined effluent treatment plant at Khurianwala Industrial Estate, Faisalabad to meet the requirements of the international market and comply with environment protection standards of the World Trade Organization (WTO), The Express Tribune has learnt.

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Hortist
Hortist is a sustainable source for horticultural news, solutions and resources, managed by a Landscape horticulturist from Pakistan. Hortist reports on importance of this very unique niche and how it improves the landscape of this world and lives of its inhabitants.